When working with statistics, generating pseudo-random samples that are distributed according to a given probability distribution is a frequent requirement. For me, being able to generate these numbers directly with SQL would be very convenient (and might also improve performance). In this post, I’m taking a look at some of the most important continuous probability distributions …

Uniform distributions are easy, because we can use PostgreSQL’s built-in
`RANDOM()`

function. `RANDOM()`

returns a uniformly distributed ```
DOUBLE
PRECISION
```

value in the range `0.0 <= x < 1.0`

. Adjusting that range is simply a
question of adding and/or multiplying with appropriate values:

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-- random double precision value in the range 1.0 <= x < 20.0
SELECT 1 + 19 * RANDOM();

That being said, it is easy to encapsulate that behavior in a SQL function for later reuse:

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-- generates `count` uniformly distributed random
-- numbers in the range `min <= x < max`
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION random_uniform(
count INTEGER DEFAULT 1,
min DOUBLE PRECISION DEFAULT 0.0,
max DOUBLE PRECISION DEFAULT 1.0
) RETURNS SETOF DOUBLE PRECISION
RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT AS $$
BEGIN
RETURN QUERY SELECT min + (max - min) * RANDOM()
FROM GENERATE_SERIES(1, count);
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

The function’s relative frequency-histogram (based on 10^{6} values):

Relative frequencies have been obtained as follows: ```
SELECT c, COUNT(r) /
1000000.0 FROM GENERATE_SERIES(0,49) AS c LEFT OUTER JOIN
random_uniform(1000000, 0, 50) AS r ON c = FLOOR(r) GROUP BY c ORDER BY
c;
```

`RANDOM()`

is the only way of generating random numbers supported by PostgreSQL.
Therefore, the exponential distribution is more challenging, because we must
somehow derive these numbers from uniformly distributed numbers.

Since the cumulative distribution function of the exponential distribution is invertible, we can use a technique known as inverse transform sampling. All of this boils down to a simple mathematical expression, that we can encapsulate in another SQL function:

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-- generates `count` exponentially distributed random
-- numbers with given expected value
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION random_exp(
count INTEGER DEFAULT 1,
mean DOUBLE PRECISION DEFAULT 1.0
) RETURNS SETOF DOUBLE PRECISION
RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT AS $$
DECLARE
u DOUBLE PRECISION;
BEGIN
WHILE count > 0 LOOP
u = RANDOM(); -- range: 0.0 <= u < 1.0
IF u != 0.0 THEN
RETURN NEXT -LN(u) * mean;
count = count - 1;
END IF;
END LOOP;
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

The function’s relative frequency-histogram (based on 10^{6} values):

Relative frequencies have been obtained as follows: ```
SELECT c, COUNT(r) /
1000000.0 FROM GENERATE_SERIES(0,49) AS c LEFT OUTER JOIN random_exp(1000000, 5)
AS r ON c = FLOOR(r) GROUP BY c ORDER BY c;
```

As far as continuous distributions are concerned, the normal distribution is probably the most important one.

To generate normally distributed numbers, we must again derive them from uniformly distributed numbers. Fortunately, mathematicians have discovered many ways of doing exactly that: Central limit theorem, Box-Muller transform, Marsaglia polar method, Ziggurat algorithm, …

For now, I’ve decided to implement the Marsaglia polar method, because it’s reasonably simple to implement in SQL:

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-- generates `count` normally distributed random numbers
-- with given mean and given standard deviation
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION random_normal(
count INTEGER DEFAULT 1,
mean DOUBLE PRECISION DEFAULT 0.0,
stddev DOUBLE PRECISION DEFAULT 1.0
) RETURNS SETOF DOUBLE PRECISION
RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT AS $$
DECLARE
u DOUBLE PRECISION;
v DOUBLE PRECISION;
s DOUBLE PRECISION;
BEGIN
WHILE count > 0 LOOP
u = RANDOM() * 2 - 1; -- range: -1.0 <= u < 1.0
v = RANDOM() * 2 - 1; -- range: -1.0 <= v < 1.0
s = u^2 + v^2;
IF s != 0.0 AND s < 1.0 THEN
s = SQRT(-2 * LN(s) / s);
RETURN NEXT mean + stddev * s * u;
count = count - 1;
IF count > 0 THEN
RETURN NEXT mean + stddev * s * v;
count = count - 1;
END IF;
END IF;
END LOOP;
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

The function’s relative frequency-histogram (based on 10^{6} values),
clearly suggests that the generated numbers are indeed normally distributed
(with expected value of 25 and standard deviation of 7):

Relative frequencies have been obtained as follows: ```
SELECT c, COUNT(r) /
1000000.0 FROM GENERATE_SERIES(0,49) AS c LEFT OUTER JOIN random_normal(1000000,
25, 7) AS r ON c = FLOOR(r) GROUP BY c ORDER BY c;
```

**Notes**

Software: PostgreSQL v9.3.1